Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Rules of Composition

Rule of Thirds:
Imaginary lines drawn dividing the grams of your camera into thirds, both horizontally and vertically.
Place important subject, or important elements of your composition, where the lines intersect.
Place the horizon line at the top or bottom horizontal divider or fill up your frame for a close up picture.

Leading Lines:
Use the lines created within the foreground or background of the composition to lead the viewer's eye through the photo.
Lines to draw attention to one or more intended subjects or a single focal point.

Point of View: Change the way your subject is perceived by changing the camera position.
If you are photographing a subject that you want to seem very tall, compose the shot so that the camera is looking upwards and vice versa.

Keep your background simple and clear of clutter.
The mood and effectiveness of a photo can be altered by what is in the background.
A chaotic composition will cause the viewer to look away.

Friday, March 9, 2012

Early Computers | 1930s - 1980s AD

What is an abacus?
A calculating tool used primarily in parts of Asia.

In 1936,  Zuse invented this type of computer?
Freely programmable.

Post a photo of the 1944 Mark Computer.

In 1944, Aiken and Hopper designed the Mark Series of computers to be used for what?
They were used by the Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations.
Post a photo of the UNIVAC Computer.

In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly designed the first commercial computer for whom? 
The Census Bureau.

What does UNIVAC stand for?

Universal Automatic Computer.

In 1953, IBM enters the scene. What does IBM stand for?
International Business Machines.

What is FORTRAN?
Formula Translating System.

Post a photo of the first mouse.

In 1964, how did Engelbart change the way computers worked?
They created the mouse making the computer more user friendly and easier to use.

What is the significance of ARPnet?
It was the "First Internet."

In 1971, Intel introduced this? 
Post a photo of it.
The first microprocessor.

In the same year, IBM introduced this? 
Post a photo of one.
The first memory disk. 

In 1973, Metcalf and Xerox created this?
The first Ethernet computer network.

During the next several years, the first consumer computers were marketed. 
Post photos of the Altair, Apple I, Apple II, TRS-80, Commodore PET. Label each.


Apple I 

Apple II


Commodore PET 

In 1981, Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced this package?
An operating system packaged with the IBM PC. 

Post a photo of the Lisa computer.

In 1983, who introduced the Lisa computer?

What is GUI?
Graphical User Interface.
Post a photo of the computer mentioned below.

In 1984, a more affordable home computer was introduced. Name the computer and the company that marketed it?
The Apple Macintosh. Apple.

The commercial only ran one time. When?
During the Super Bowl in 1984.

In response to the Apple GUI, Gates and Microsoft introduced this?
The Windows Operating system.

Two men are known for their development of the Apple I computer. Who are they?
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.

When was the internet that we know, world wide web, developed and introduced?
In the 1990's.

Over the years, Apple has included "easter eggs" within their software. What is an "easter egg"?
An unexpected surprise commonly hidden in hard to find spaces or found through the completion of a tough task.

Search for easter eggs in Photoshop and Illustrator. List a few in this post ... and try to find them in the applications. Unfortunately, I don't have these programs so I had to google them. There is a way to get a belching cat, credits, a hidden face, and secret messages.

Where do you think computers will take us in the next 10 years?

Computers will most likely advance to the point where they will be able to do so much that some people will realize that they don't need to leave their house to live their lives. True story. 

Photography | 1839 - 1960s AD

Until the 1880s, how were news stories illustrated?
They were illustrated with engravings. 

What is a camera obscura?
A way to observe light.
Post an example of a camera obscura.

How did scholars and artists utilize the camera obscure?
They used it to observe solar eclipses. Artists used it as a way to paint and trace outside scenes. 

From where did the photographic camera develop?
The portable box.

Who first used the term "photography"? Where was is derived from?
John Hershel. It was derived from the greek words for light and writing.
Post an the first photograph.  

Who is credited with making the first successful photograph?
Joseph Niepce.
Post an example of a Daguerreotype image. 

Who invented the Daguerreotype process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
Louis Daguerre. It was faster and could be made permanent. However, the image could not be duplicated.
Post an example of a Calotype image. 

Who invented the Calotype process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
William Fox Talbot. It's quality was inferior to the other processes. But, an unlimited amount of duplicates could be made.
Post an example of a Wet Collodion Process image. 

Who invented the Wet Collodion process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
Frederick Scott Archer. It was faster and cheaper. Unfortunately, it was inconvenient to have to carry around the "dark room".
Post an example of a Dry Plate Process image. 

Who invented the Dry Plate process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
Richard Maddox. This process had all the advantages of the wet plate process, but rid it of it's disadvantages.

Who is George Eastman? What company did he establish?
The man who made photography more easily accessible by the public. He invented roll film. Eastman Kodak Company.
Post an example of The Kodak Camera from 1888. 

In 1888, he produced a camera that use his flexible roll film. How did he make this camera/photography accessible to the public? He made the camera cheap and easy to use. 

What is Edwin Land best known for? What company did he establish?
Patenting light filters and instant photography. Poloraoid Corporation. 
Post a photo of the first Polaroid camera.

How long did the first Polaroid camera take to produce a photo?
Sixty seconds.

What was Eadweard Muybridge known for?
Helped develop a way to capture motion using cameras.
Post a photo of the Zoopraxiscope.

What is the Zoopraxiscope?
A device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion.
Post a photo of Muybridge's horse in motion.

How did Muybridge settle the debate and photograph a horse in motion?He used a large line of cameras in a line and took pictures of the horse moving.

In 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed this?
Individual images to be captured and stored on a single reel film.
Post a photo of a motion picture projector.

What is a motion picture projector?
A machine that, when light is shone through the screen, magnifies the image and can be shown on the screen. 

The Linotype Machine | 1886 AD

Who is credited with the invention of the typewriter?
Christopher Sholes.

What is a "stenographer"?
A court reporter.
Post an example of Shole's typewriter.

Why did Sholes send a prototype of his typewriter to Clephane?
He realized that stenographers would be among the most important users.

After the typewriter began production, why did Clephane pursue another machine?
He realized that the typewriter did not solve all of this problems and sought out a machine that could.

Who spent a year redesigning Clephane's typesetting machine?

What is meant by "typesetting"?
The composition of text by means of types.
Post an example of Linotype Machine.

How does the Linotype Machine differ from the typewriter?
Allowed type to be set mechanically instead of by hand. 

How did this machine change the newspaper industry?
More pages could be created daily with the same amount of operators.
Post an example of a Linotype keyboard.

How did the keyboard of the Linotype Machine differ from keyboards that we use today?
There were 90 characters because there was no shift key.
Post an example of a Linotype slug.

What is a slug?
An assembled line of type that is cast into a single piece of metal.
Post an example of a person operating a Linotype Machine.

Why is the Linotype Machine the greatest advanced in printing since movable type?
It made printing much faster than it's predecessors.