Monday, May 7, 2012

Assignment #20: Research, Inspiration and Shepard Fairey

Shepard Fairey: An american graphic designer who is considered one of the most influential street artists. His artwork became more known during the 2008 presidential election when he created his Barack Obama "Hope" campaign poster. Now, Shepard has artwork in The Smithsonian, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, the National Portrait Gallery, and the Victoria and Albert Museum (in London.)

Shepard is well known for the "Andre the Giant has a Posse" stickers created during the late 1980's. However, he is best known for the Hope posters created during the 2008 presidential elections. These were a series of posters created to support Barack Obama during the 2008 candidacy. Considered to be "perpetuated illegally", the Obama campaign declined any affiliation with the posters. Later on, Shepard received a letter from Obama himself thanking him for the posters he had created to aid him in the election.

Possible Topics:
Pollution
Drunk driving
Riots


















Color Psychology



Tuesday, April 24, 2012

Assignment #19 Research and Info

This business card uses nice colors and aligns the text in to the left. The card gets the information out there without too much detail. It is very easy to navigate. The card also has a professional taste to it which, ideally, is the objective of any designing company.








This business card has the name of the designer bolded (showing emphasis) on a darker color (showing contrast). All of the text is aligned to the right of the card. All of the information is easily navigated and the colours work well together.







Elements that could possibly be used in this assignment: Contrast, emphasis, figure-ground, etc.

The Candy Shop:

Light and playful colours because the target audience is children.

Candy wrapper outline




















I like how the shapes and designs are used in this letterhead. It has nice designs while still leaving enough room for a letter.  The colours also work well together.


Stationery Package

The printed pieces that a company utilizes for communication purposes.

When establishing a business, it is very important that all communications are well coordinated and that the message of the organization is presented consistently.

Includes business card, letterhead, and envelope.

Business card: The essential part of the stationery design. When you hand someone your business card, they will form an immediate opinion about your compnay. Your business card does more than tell people how to find you: it says something about your company and it's mission, its culture, and its goals. Everything from the colours, fonts , the texture, shade, and gloss of the paper you print on says something about you.

Usually includes: Logo, company name, employee name, title, phone number, fax number, email address, company address, and web address.

Must be 2x3.5, horizontal or vertical orientation, check for accuracy, check for unity...continuity among other pieces, and typical margin is .25 to .125.

Letterhead:

A printed piece of paper used to send letters, memos, etc.

Includes: Logo, company name, company address, phone number, fax number, and web address.

Must be 8.5x11, must be vertical orientation, must lave room to write the letter, memo, etc. check for accuracy and unity.

Envelope:

The packaging that contains the letter/form when being mailed.

Includes: Logo, company name, and address.

9.5x4.125, horizontal or vertical orientation, must leave room for recipient's address and stamp, check for accuracy and unity.


Thursday, April 19, 2012

Assignment #18 Inspiration and more.

This word type uses different fonts and colors to make one word stand out against the other. The "Firefox" is more bold and is a brighter color making the eye attract to it first.

1. Firefox
2. Mozilla





The animal rescue wordmark uses two different colors, two different fonts, and two different sizes. The large, bolded letters are the first thing that is noticed when looking at this wordmark. The color red draws your eye to the words.
1. Animal
2. Rescue
3. Foundation

Friday, April 13, 2012

Assignment #17 Inspiration and Junk

I really like the colors in this one. The white stands out on the logo pretty well.
1. TRIBE
2. Light blue bar
3. Lighter green bar
4. Dark green bars


Once again, the colors on this design work very well together. The design is simple yet still effective.
1. Buzzmaker
2. White dialogue bubble inside the B
3. The B

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Logo Type

Logotype: A graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. Referred to as a LOGO.

Often used in children's books, authoritative newspapers, and conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.

Logos are meant to represent companies'  brands or corporate identities and foster their immediate customer recognition.

Less is more: Real people don't take the time to analyze logos.

A logo needs to be simple, but still maintain a powerful personality that can stand out in a crowd.

Logotypes were a way to advertise once printing became available.

Modernism made logos simple, but effective.

Principles of effective logo design:

Simple: Simplicity makes a logo design easily recognizable, versatile and memorable. Good logos feature something unexpected or unique, without being overdrawn.

Memorable: Following closely on this principle of simplicity is that of memorability. An effective logo design should be memorable, which is achieved by keeping it simple yet appropriate.

Timeless: An effective logo should be timless. Will yours stand the test of time? Will it still be effective in 10, 20 or 50 years?

Versatile: An effective logo works across a variety of media and application. For this reason, logos should be designed in vector format, to ensure that they scale to any size.

Appropriate: How you "position" the logo should be appropriate for its intended audience. For example, a child-like font and color scheme would be appropriate for a logo for  a children's toy store, not so much for a law firm.

Ask yourself, is your logo still effective if it is printed:
In one color? In reverse color? The size of a potage stamp? As large as a billboard?

Four color process: Technique for printing with full color. The four colors reproduce all colors of the spectrum when mixed in proper proportion. ALso called full color printing.

Spot Color: Method of specifying and printing colors in which each color is printed with it's own ink. Spot color printing is effective when the printed matter contains only one to three different colors, but it becomes prohibitively expensive for more colors.

Color plays an important role in logo design. Color can illicit different feelings and emotions from the audience. Color should be carefully considered based on your target audience.

Colors also tend to follow trends, just like fashion. So a new vibrant company may want to follow current trends, whereas a bank may choose to stay with a more conservative color palette.

Keep your color palette to two or three. Too many colors will increase your cost of production. As well, it may cause a chaotic design.

Combination mark: Matches text and visuals together to make an effective logo.

Iconic/Symbolic: Icons and symbols are compelling yet uncomplicated images that are emblematic of a particular company or product. They use imagery that conveys a literal or abstract representation of your organization. Symbols are less direct than straight text, leaving room for broader interpretation of what the organization represents. In order for a symbol to be a truly effective logo, it should conform to these maxims.

Wordmark/lettermark: Logos that only have text. Wordmark is the whole company name while the letter mark is an acronym/initials.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Rules of Composition

Rule of Thirds:
Imaginary lines drawn dividing the grams of your camera into thirds, both horizontally and vertically.
Place important subject, or important elements of your composition, where the lines intersect.
Place the horizon line at the top or bottom horizontal divider or fill up your frame for a close up picture.

Leading Lines:
Use the lines created within the foreground or background of the composition to lead the viewer's eye through the photo.
Lines to draw attention to one or more intended subjects or a single focal point.

Point of View: Change the way your subject is perceived by changing the camera position.
If you are photographing a subject that you want to seem very tall, compose the shot so that the camera is looking upwards and vice versa.

Simplicity:
Keep your background simple and clear of clutter.
The mood and effectiveness of a photo can be altered by what is in the background.
A chaotic composition will cause the viewer to look away.

Friday, March 9, 2012

Early Computers | 1930s - 1980s AD

What is an abacus?
A calculating tool used primarily in parts of Asia.

In 1936,  Zuse invented this type of computer?
Freely programmable.

Post a photo of the 1944 Mark Computer.


In 1944, Aiken and Hopper designed the Mark Series of computers to be used for what?
They were used by the Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations.
Post a photo of the UNIVAC Computer.



In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly designed the first commercial computer for whom? 
The Census Bureau.

What does UNIVAC stand for?

Universal Automatic Computer.

In 1953, IBM enters the scene. What does IBM stand for?
International Business Machines.

What is FORTRAN?
Formula Translating System.

Post a photo of the first mouse.




In 1964, how did Engelbart change the way computers worked?
They created the mouse making the computer more user friendly and easier to use.

What is the significance of ARPnet?
It was the "First Internet."

In 1971, Intel introduced this? 
Post a photo of it.
The first microprocessor.

In the same year, IBM introduced this? 
Post a photo of one.
The first memory disk. 

In 1973, Metcalf and Xerox created this?
The first Ethernet computer network.

During the next several years, the first consumer computers were marketed. 
Post photos of the Altair, Apple I, Apple II, TRS-80, Commodore PET. Label each.


Altair 
















Apple I 


















Apple II
















 TSR-80 

Commodore PET 










In 1981, Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced this package?
An operating system packaged with the IBM PC. 

Post a photo of the Lisa computer.



In 1983, who introduced the Lisa computer?
Apple.

What is GUI?
Graphical User Interface.
Post a photo of the computer mentioned below.



In 1984, a more affordable home computer was introduced. Name the computer and the company that marketed it?
The Apple Macintosh. Apple.

The commercial only ran one time. When?
During the Super Bowl in 1984.

In response to the Apple GUI, Gates and Microsoft introduced this?
The Windows Operating system.

Two men are known for their development of the Apple I computer. Who are they?
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.

When was the internet that we know, world wide web, developed and introduced?
In the 1990's.

Over the years, Apple has included "easter eggs" within their software. What is an "easter egg"?
An unexpected surprise commonly hidden in hard to find spaces or found through the completion of a tough task.

Search for easter eggs in Photoshop and Illustrator. List a few in this post ... and try to find them in the applications. Unfortunately, I don't have these programs so I had to google them. There is a way to get a belching cat, credits, a hidden face, and secret messages.


Where do you think computers will take us in the next 10 years?

Computers will most likely advance to the point where they will be able to do so much that some people will realize that they don't need to leave their house to live their lives. True story. 

Photography | 1839 - 1960s AD

Until the 1880s, how were news stories illustrated?
They were illustrated with engravings. 

What is a camera obscura?
A way to observe light.
Post an example of a camera obscura.


How did scholars and artists utilize the camera obscure?
They used it to observe solar eclipses. Artists used it as a way to paint and trace outside scenes. 

From where did the photographic camera develop?
The portable box.

Who first used the term "photography"? Where was is derived from?
John Hershel. It was derived from the greek words for light and writing.
Post an the first photograph.  


Who is credited with making the first successful photograph?
Joseph Niepce.
Post an example of a Daguerreotype image. 



Who invented the Daguerreotype process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
Louis Daguerre. It was faster and could be made permanent. However, the image could not be duplicated.
Post an example of a Calotype image. 



Who invented the Calotype process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
William Fox Talbot. It's quality was inferior to the other processes. But, an unlimited amount of duplicates could be made.
Post an example of a Wet Collodion Process image. 



Who invented the Wet Collodion process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
Frederick Scott Archer. It was faster and cheaper. Unfortunately, it was inconvenient to have to carry around the "dark room".
Post an example of a Dry Plate Process image. 



Who invented the Dry Plate process? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the process?
Richard Maddox. This process had all the advantages of the wet plate process, but rid it of it's disadvantages.

Who is George Eastman? What company did he establish?
The man who made photography more easily accessible by the public. He invented roll film. Eastman Kodak Company.
Post an example of The Kodak Camera from 1888. 



In 1888, he produced a camera that use his flexible roll film. How did he make this camera/photography accessible to the public? He made the camera cheap and easy to use. 


What is Edwin Land best known for? What company did he establish?
Patenting light filters and instant photography. Poloraoid Corporation. 
Post a photo of the first Polaroid camera.



How long did the first Polaroid camera take to produce a photo?
Sixty seconds.

What was Eadweard Muybridge known for?
Helped develop a way to capture motion using cameras.
Post a photo of the Zoopraxiscope.



What is the Zoopraxiscope?
A device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion.
Post a photo of Muybridge's horse in motion.


How did Muybridge settle the debate and photograph a horse in motion?He used a large line of cameras in a line and took pictures of the horse moving.

In 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed this?
Individual images to be captured and stored on a single reel film.
Post a photo of a motion picture projector.


What is a motion picture projector?
A machine that, when light is shone through the screen, magnifies the image and can be shown on the screen. 

The Linotype Machine | 1886 AD

Who is credited with the invention of the typewriter?
Christopher Sholes.

What is a "stenographer"?
A court reporter.
Post an example of Shole's typewriter.


Why did Sholes send a prototype of his typewriter to Clephane?
He realized that stenographers would be among the most important users.

After the typewriter began production, why did Clephane pursue another machine?
He realized that the typewriter did not solve all of this problems and sought out a machine that could.

Who spent a year redesigning Clephane's typesetting machine?
Mergenthaler.

What is meant by "typesetting"?
The composition of text by means of types.
Post an example of Linotype Machine.


How does the Linotype Machine differ from the typewriter?
Allowed type to be set mechanically instead of by hand. 

How did this machine change the newspaper industry?
More pages could be created daily with the same amount of operators.
Post an example of a Linotype keyboard.


How did the keyboard of the Linotype Machine differ from keyboards that we use today?
There were 90 characters because there was no shift key.
Post an example of a Linotype slug.


What is a slug?
An assembled line of type that is cast into a single piece of metal.
Post an example of a person operating a Linotype Machine.


Why is the Linotype Machine the greatest advanced in printing since movable type?
It made printing much faster than it's predecessors. 

Monday, February 27, 2012

The Gutenburg Press | 1450 AD

What is Johannes Gutenberg credited with?
The technology to print with movable type.

Post a photo of the Gutenberg Press.




How did the printing press work?
Ink was rolled over hand set block letters. The form was then pressed against a type of paper.

What motivated Gutenberg to find a better way of creating books?
Working at a crafting shop and his love of reading.

Why did Gutenberg experiment with metal type versus wood type?
Because wood cuts were not durable. 





Post an example of movable type in a type case.



What is moveable type?
Metal type.

What is a matrix?
A copper bar with a hard metal pinch hammered in.

What ink did Gutenberg develop that he used specifically for the printing press?
An oil based ink.

What is paper made from? Where did paper originate?
Wood pulp. From China.

What is a "substrate"?
A layer where something occurs.

Who did Gutenberg seek to help with the invention of the press? 

John Fust. 


Close to the end of the 5 years, what happened? 
Just sued Gutenburg.

What was the first book he printed?

The Bible. 


 Post an example of this book.



















How did the Gutenberg Press impact communication?
It made script easier to read and made books faster making current information quicker to travel around the world. It also influenced people's will to learn.

Who introduced the printing press to England?
William Caxton.

What was the early form of newspapers?
Trade newsletters.

When was the first news weekly published? What was it called?
The Boston Letter was published in 1704.

What kind of press was built in the US in the mid 1800s?

A press made of cast iron. 

Post an example of a 1930s printing press. 





By the late 1930s, presses had increased in efficiency and were capable of 2,500 to 3,500 impressions per hour. What is meant by "impression"?
An impression is where ink is put onto paper (basically printing.)

Which printing process is the Gutenberg press an example of? Briefly describe the process?

Relief Printing Process. Type is placed on a press and ink is placed on the type. Then, paper is placed on top of the type. 


Post an example of an intaglio press.





What is intaglio printing and how is ink transferred?
The process in which an image is incised into a surface and that area holds the ink. The ink is placed on the surface and paper is pressed on top. 



Post an example of a screen (porous) printing press.





What is porous printing and how is ink transferred?
Using a basic stencil. An image is placed on a screen and ink is forced through the mesh. 



Post an example of a lithography printing press.





What is lithography and how is ink transferred?
Using a flat surface to print off of. A drawing is made from an ink and water is added. It is then rubbed on the flat surface and the ink stays but the water doesn't. 



Post an example of a offset lithography printing press.





What variation of lithography is used by the commercial printing industry today?
Offset lithography.

How do printing presses used today compare to the Gutenberg Press?
Printing has gotten easy and it is possible to print more pages at once now.

Describe four-color process printing using CMYK? 

Each letter of CMYK stands for a different color: C- Cyan M- Magenta Y- Yellow K- Black



THe Codex and the Illuminated Manuscript | 1st Century AD

Post an example of a scroll.



What were the drawbacks of the scroll?
The scroll only allowed sequential usage.



















Post an example of a codex.




What is a codex?
A covered and bound collection of hand written pages.

"Codex" is derived from the Latin meaning "block of wood". Why?
The was compact and sturdy.

What is the difference between "sequential access" and "random access"?
One can go to any point in the book for information.

What were the advantages of using the codex?
It was more portable and random access.

What helped spread the use of the codex?
The rise of Christianity.

What replaced papyrus? Describe the process used to create it?
Parchment. It was made from animal skins.

What is vellum?
A finer quality of parchment.

Name several examples of current technology that utilizes the format of the codex?
The online books that can be found on Kindles and iPads.

What led to a period of cultural and economical deterioration?
The decline in the roman empires creation of books. 










Post an example of an illuminated manuscript.



Who began creating books by hand, taking the creation to an art form?
Monastic monks.

What does "illumination" refer to? What was included in this ornamentation?
The borders and illustrations. Initials of chapters and paragraphs.

What tool was used for creating the illuminated manuscripts?
Feathers from animals and animal hides.

Why were these manuscripts reserved for religious purposes?
The creation of these manuscripts was difficult.

What is craftsmanship? Why is it important?

The work used to create the books. 

The Roman Alphabet | 7th Century BC

What was the basis of the Roman uppercase alphabet?
The greek alphabet.

What were the purposes of the formal and informal styles of lettering?
There were different writing styles for different occasions.

Why is the Roman alphabet the most widely used and what contributions did it make?
This writing style is used by many cultures and contributed the serifs type and baseline.

From where did serifs originate?
The roman alphabet from the carving of stones in Italy.

When and where did lowercase, or minuscule, letters develop?
The two types of letters were kept in different drawers (the lowercase being on the bottom) so the uppercase ended being up on the top and the lowercase on the lower drawer.

What is a ligature and why were they utilized?
When two or more graphemes are joined as a single glyph. 






Post an example of the Roman alphabet in visual form. 




The Greek Alphabet | 800 BC

How did Greeks come in contact with the Phoenicians?
Through trade agreements.

How was the Greek adaptation of the alphabet different from its predecessor?
It adapted the letter forms.

Why is the Greek alphabet considered to be the world's first true alphabet?
It has given rise to other alphabets.

Name several similarities and differences between the Greek and modern English alphabets?



The greek alphabet uses different symbols than the english alphabet, but still conveys a consonant or vowel. 

Post an example of the Greek alphabet in visual form. 

The Phoenician Alphabet | 1050 BC

The Phoenician alphabet is based on what principle?
One sign represents a spoken sound.

Describe the shape of the letters and what tool created them?
The letters were angular and straight and made with a stylus.

What two reasons made the Phoenician alphabet so successful?
It was simple and easy to read. The maritime trading culture spread the alphabet.

What long term effects on the social structures of civilizations did the Phoenicians have with the creation of their alphabet?



It was the first widespread phonetic script. It was used to disintegrate class division between royalty and the common people.
Post an example of the Phoenician alphabet in visual form. 



Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Assignment 14 Research and Inspiration

What kind of message is being communicated?
- Persuasion to look into animations.

How can this be done?
- Use of popular examples on the poster.

Who is the audience?
- The class.

What are you trying to tell them?
- That my poster is pretty good and that animating is a good job.

What colors and styles will work for them?
- Darker colors are preferred with light text to draw attention to the words being said.  Should be simple and easy to read while still getting the message across.

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Visual Organization

Not directing the audience through a design is misdirecting them.

Eye Movement: 
The typical eye moves left to right and top to bottom. 

Controlling eye movement within a composition is a matter of directing the natural scanning tendency of the viewer's eye. 

The eye tends to gravitate towards areas of complexity first. In pictures of people, the eye is always attracted to the face and particularly the eye. 

Light ares of a composition will attract the eye, especially when adjacent to a dark area.  

Diagonal lines or edges will guide eye movement. 

Optical Center:  the spot where the human eye tends to enter the page. Optical center is slightly above mathematical center just to the left. 

It takes a compelling element to pull your eyes away from this spot. 

Z pattern: Our visual pattern makes a sweep of the page, generally, in the shape of a "Z".

Effective page design maps a viewer's route through the information. The designer's objective is to lead the viewer's eye to the important elements or information.

Fonts

Use no more than 2 fonts on a single page.

Fonts should compliment each other.

Avoid all uppercase, unless you're trying to grab their attention on a certain point.

Choose the right font.

Don't overuse fancy/complicated fonts.

www.typography.com/email/2010_032010_03/index.htm

Visual Hierarchy: Will establish focal points based on importance to message being communicated.

A crucial part of the design process is to establish an order of elements, a visual structure, to help the viewer absorb the information provided by a design.

To establish a visual hierarchy, ask yourself the following:

What do I want my viewer to look at first? Second? Third?

The Grid:

A way of organizing content on a page, using any combination of margins, guide lines, rows and columns.

Instituted by Modernism

Can assist the audience by breaking info into manageable chunks and establishing relationships between text and images.

A grid consists of a distinct set of alignment-based relationships that act as guides for distributing elements across a format.

Every design is different; therefore every design will require a different gird structure...one that addresses the particular elements within the design.

A grid is used to clarify the message being communicated and to unify the elements.

Monday, February 13, 2012

Hieroglyphics and the Egyptians | 3,000 BC

In the sixth century BC, what three civilizations invaded Egypt?
Persians, Greeks and Romans.

Post an example of the inside wall(s) of an Ancient Egyptian temple.




What was discovered on the inside of the temples?
Hieroglyphics.

Scholars believe that Ancient Egyptians were inspired and influenced by which written language?
Cuneiform.

What is the difference between logographic and alphabetic elements?
Logograms are visual symbols to represent objects.
Alphabetic came later to document writing.

The term Hieroglyphic derived from what two Greek words?
Sacred engravings.

What is a scribe?


Who else was trained to read and write? Why?
Students and Military personnel. 








Post an example of hieroglyphics on papyrus.




What is papyrus and how was it made?
Substrate made from reeds. Wet reeds are placed, flattened and dried. Rubbed with flat stones until smooth.

What is a substrate?
Natural stone/surface.

What were the Books of the Dead?
Instructions on how to reach the afterlife.

How did Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics become a forgotten language?
The Greeks and Romans overtook Egypt and after a while, few egyptians could actually read the hieroglyphics. 




Post an example of the Rosetta Stone.





What is the Rosetta Stone? Where was it discovered?
A slab with three different languages.

What three languages are included on the stone?
Egyptian, Demotic, and Greek.

Why couldn't the text on the Stone be deciphered?
The texts are not completely complete.

Who finally deciphered the text? What was his breakthrough?
Jean Francois Champollion. He was able to decipher the text.

Why does the interpretation of the Rosetta Stone have such significance?

We now know about the ancient egyptians.